When Jeff isn’t leading the Goose, he’s probably either teaching grad students at Middle Tennessee State University, riding a bike, consulting in a political campaign, dancing in a club on Broadway, directing an academic conference in Chicago, or out finding the best ice cream shop in town. Jeff is happiest when he’s multi-tasking. Jeff loves music and production and creating. In addition to bringing strategic thinking to the Goose, you’ll find him all over the festival grounds making sure the lighting and sound are perfect. And dancing in front of the stage. Jeff is President and Producer of the Wild Goose Festival and Director of Graduate Studies in Information Technology at Middle Tennessee State University.
As a national speaker, advocate, and emcee, Julian “J.Kwest” DeShazier has appeared on ABC, CBS, FOX, and Dr. Maya Angelou’s “Oprah & Friends” radio program. J.Kwest is also an Emmy Award-winning musician, featured in the video “Strange Fruit,” a commemoration of the Billie Holiday song and a meditation on racial violence. In 2012 he and his group, Verbal Kwest, appeared in the OXFAM and Bread for the World-produced documentary The Line, providing a critical voice against poverty and violence in the United States. A Chicago native and graduate of Morehouse College and the University of Chicago, he is also pastor of University Church, which most recently worked on a campaign for a trauma center on Chicago’s South Side. J is an adjunct professor at the University of Chicago Divinity School and McCormick Theological Seminary, and is a regular contributor to Sojourners and Huffington Post publications.
The Rev. Tommy Dillon is Priest-in-Charge of St. Margaret’s Episcopal Church in Baton Rouge, LA. In Tommy’s world, there is no such thing as the “outcast and the stranger.” His work with newly-released prisoners, with people suffering mental illness and homelessness, and with Hurricane Katrina survivors gave him a fearless compassion for human need in Louisiana before moving to the West Coast in 2006. While serving as priest in San Francisco and the Seattle Area, LGBT, parish food bank, and elder ministries flourished; Diocesan, parish, and neighborhood Disaster Preparedness groups formed; and connections in El Salvador were created through the Anglican Church of El Salvador and Foundation Cristosal.
Tommy serves on the Boards of the Wild Goose Festival and the General Theological Seminary of the Episcopal Church.
Collaborating to create beautiful liturgy feeds his soul. Good food, good friends, and road trips with his Whippet pal Josh reveal the Holy in the everyday world.
Reverend Adam Lawrence Dyer is the Lead Minister at First Parish Cambridge, a Unitarian Universalist Church in Cambridge, Massachusetts. He is thrilled to return to Wild Goose as a proud member of the Board. His ministry and writing focuses on embodied faith and exploring the intersection between race, sexuality, and religion. A graduate of the Pacific School of Religion, he also holds a certificate in Sexuality and Religion and was the 2017 recipient of the Paul Wesley Yinger preaching award. His book of poetry/meditations, Love Beyond God, was published in 2016 by Skinner House Books. At First Parish, he is deeply engaged in ministry to address issues around homelessness and to support the work of youth shelters, meals programs, and programs to support the elderly remaining in the home. In addition to serving First Parish, Adam is also the Unitarian Universalist Chaplain at Harvard University.
Music Curation/Board Member
Teresa Gonda is a wife, an Ignatian-trained spiritual director, a singer-songwriter, a Catholic music director, an engineer, and an organizational development consultant. But it is the persistent aching in her soul for deeper connection with the Divine Mystery that calls her towards the identity she treasures most: a “mystic in training.”
Brian D. McLaren is an author, speaker, activist, and public theologian. A former college English teacher and pastor, he is a passionate advocate for “a new kind of Christianity” – just, generous, and working with people of all faiths for the common good. Notable among the many books he has authored are: “A New Kind of Christian”, which won Christianity Today’s “Award of Merit” in 2002; “Everything Must Change” tracing critical ways in which Jesus’ message confronts contemporary global crises; and We Make the Road by Walking, marking a turn toward constructive and practical theology. His 2016 release, The Great Spiritual Migration, has been hailed as his most important work to date. Brian is married to Grace, and they have four adult children and five grandchildren. His personal interests include wildlife and ecology, fly fishing and kayaking, music and songwriting, art, history, and literature. www.brianmclaren.net
208 Brian McLaren, Topic TBD
209 How did we get here and where are we going
226 Brian McLaren, Topic TBD
278 Gathering The Goose
128 Taking to the Social Streets
87 A Dialogue With Brian McLaren and Reverend Trier
335 Creating Congregational Change
Joy Wallis was one of the first women ordained to the priesthood in the Church of England in 1994. She was the real-life Vicar of Dibley and the inspiration for the 1994 BBC comedy series of the same name. She’s the author of Beneath the Cassock: The Real Life Vicar of Dibley, and The Woman Behind the Collar. Joy and her husband, Jim Wallis (Soujourners), live in Washington, D.C. with their two children, Luke and Jack.
A graduate of the University of Chicago (PhD, AM) under Martin E. Marty, and the University of Richmond, Rob is the author of numerous articles, blogs, podcasts, and a forthcoming book on religion and education. He has given talks on campuses throughout the world, including UC-Berkeley, Northwestern, Georgetown, the University of Chicago, the University of Cape Town, and the Pontifical Gregorian University in Rome. Rob has been CEO of Sojourners since 2013, and serves as co-chair of the National Museum of American Religion Board; on the Alumni Council of the University of Chicago Divinity School, Sidwell Friends School Parents Committee on Equality, Justice and Community; and the Wild Goose Festival Board.
He lives in Reston, Virginia with his wife of 23 years, the Reverend Juli Wilson-Black, a Presbyterian minister, and their children Hannah (15) Claire (12) and Owen (8). They travel with him to many of the 65 countries he has visited for research, speaking, and education.
And the people who keep the Goose in flight
Rev Rebecca Anderson (church planter, Gilead Chicago; co-pastor, Bethany UCC) is ordained in The Christian Church (Disciples of Christ). She has a MDiv from the University of Chicago and a BA in Playwrighting from Hampshire College. A believer in the power of the spoken word, Rebecca’s been on Snap Judgment (radio) and The Broad Experience (podcast). In Chicago, Rebecca has worked with story-telling companies like 2nd Story, The Moth, This Much is True, and Do Not Submit. As Earshot Stories, Rebecca has developed and teaches workshops designed to introduce the craft of storytelling, foster interpersonal connection, and develop the ability of individuals to interpret stories and other texts, including Scripture. (EarshotStories.com) After a trip to Vancouver, technically speaking, she does this internationally. Outside of work, she’s about potlucks, gardening, weaving, knitting, bicycling (in season), or doing *nothing* on Chicago’s beaches.
231 Rebecca Anderson, Topic TBD
Jenna can usually be found riding around the grounds in various trucks, putting up and down the festival, and making sure it all works. When she’s not doing that, you may find her helping out at the Desanka tent. She’s been volunteering here since the Goose’s second year. She’s traveled and lived in Kenya, India, Peru, South America, and the U.K.; knows various different sign languages; and has worked with the Deaf worldwide. Jenna treasures family and community, and has a heart to serve, to give, and to spread love to anyone and everyone. She’s interested in anything and everything involving human connection, nature, meditation, and spirituality.
Studio Tent, Art Integration & Co-Creation, Storytelling
Shawna used to get in trouble for drawing “too loud” in church. But music, crafts, woodworking, and sewing projects were the life-blood of her family and she was just pitching in with her best gifts – visual arts. Shawna used her education in Studio Art and Art Education to teach, learn, and play with amazing students in the public schools before heading off to seminary. Then she learned that for her pastoral imagination to flourish she couldn’t stop creating. Now she makes, builds, creates, writes, and speaks in worship experiences all over the country and in the quirky community she pastors in Chicago, Friendship Presbyterian Church. Shawna’s excited to cultivate a working studio tent at the Goose integrating visual art with the arts of story telling and music making.
twitter and instagram: @shawnabowman
191 Community Art Project
Alison Burchett is the Managing Director of The Center for Faith and Service at McCormick Theological Seminary where, among other things, she coordinates Seminaries that Change the World. Alison is passionate about helping seminaries and divinity schools, denominations, and congregations re-imagine, recruit, and develop innovative church leadership. Alison received her MDiv from Princeton Theological Seminary and is a member of the Presbyterian Church (USA).
Operations and Programming Support
Born and raised in North Florida, Cody is a passionate advocate for social justice and full inclusion of the LGBTQ+ community within the Church. He currently resides in Denver, Colorado where he is an active member of House For All Sinners and Saints. In 2016 he helped launch and currently runs the website IntersectionsFaith.com where he is a self-proclaimed “wannabe blogger” and Co-host of the Intersections Podcast. Cody has also assisted in starting Beer & Hymns Jax as well as The Intersections Festival. Cody started as a part of the Wild Goose Festival staff this year handling logistics and operations and looks forward to seeing the festival and the Wild Goose Community continue to grow.
ADA Coordinator and Bookstore Manager
Carrie is a writer and an Episcopal priest with “a leaning toward the East,” raised in the south and studying from Boulder to Berkeley. She’s honored to work with geese who fly by their own unique patterns, loves meeting people at the festival, and is always looking forward to gathering with people who share their stories of “spirituality awakening” in a place filled with the celebration of these stories. . Carrie enjoys being outdoors, good food and time with friends. Evenings often find her with a book and a glass of wine.
Contact Carrie with any questons about accessibility or bookstore.
Bec Cranford is a self-identified Bapticostal misfit preacher* from Atlanta, Georgia. When she’s not hanging out with her dog Basil or painting, you can probably find her at the Gateway Center working to make homelessness brief and rare in the city. Or at Candler School of Theology, rocking her students’ socks off. Or preaching, marrying folks, or sitting on her front porch with friends, having conversations about life, God, and everything in between. This year at the Goose, Bec’s happy to serve as Volunteer Coordinator and offer hospitality to everybody she meets.
G. Dillon Culbreth
An anonymous bio should be a fun assignment. After all, the second A in AA is ‘Anonymous’, yet how can we be of assistance if people can’t even tell we’re in ‘the program’? I made the ‘offer’ to host ’12 Step Recovery’ since I have experienced AA, NA, GA, SLAA, and OA .. however the Goose decides to fly the flag is fine by me .. as long as I’ve got a meeting! Since this IS Wild Goose, I come to serve .. food and Spirit .. so if you are trying to find me other than at meeting times, a good start would be to look for the purple glasses in the tent or behind the scenes at One Heart Café. I can’t bring my cat Thay to the Goose, but the reunions when I pick him up at the ‘Cat Condo’ make it OK! If you find the talk I walk something you’d like to dig into deeper, look up Ashe Unity Group at BooneAA.org .. I average five of our six meetings per week. Remember, it’s all One Day At A Time!
The best way to describe Rita is “gets it done.” She has never encountered a challenge she couldn’t meet. While volunteering with the Wild Goose Festival since the first festival in 2011, working on various committees at her church, and being a steadfast activist for the homeless and the LGBT community in Raleigh, North Carolina, she makes time for her husband, Mark (also a Wild Goose volunteer), her two daughters, and her three grandchildren. Rita thrives on the energy she gets from the like-minded community she has found at Wild Goose. If you are lucky enough to share the dance floor or the yoga mat with “Rita Ranger,” you’ll know you have found a lifelong friend.
The Rev. Nicole Farley is an ordained pastor in the Presbyterian Church (USA). She most recently served a congregation in Waukesha, Wisconsin, and now serves as the founder and pastoral artist with A New Creation, an arts ministry which brings communities into the creation of worship-ful art together. She and her husband live in Gurnee, Illinois, and together they have an adult son named Jim and a greyhound named Buddy. Besides art and lived theology, she’ll gladly have a conversation about books, podcasts, music, and movies.
Leader, Spiritual Direction Team Linda Flynn is Executive Director of the Charlotte Spirituality Center, a spiritual and educational institute that offers training of spiritual directors, companionship in spiritual formation and spiritual direction in the Southeast. A spiritual director and retreat leader for sixteen years, she specializes in Ignatian Spirituality, discernment, twelve step, and the Enneagram. With a degree in Hospitality Management, Linda received her ministry training through the Jesuits, the Enneagram Institute, her certification from the Charlotte Spirituality Center and supervisory certificate from “Together in the Mystery Supervision Program” associated with San Francisco Theological Seminary. A member of Spiritual Directors International, Linda describes herself as a progressive, ecumenical Catholic who values community, non-violence, and equality. Linda is also the co-founder of the annual event “Blanket Banquet” for the homeless and author of the retreat workbook “Praying Twelve Ste
Senior Vice President/Director of Strategic Partnerships & Development
Vanna is a rare breed, an actual native of Asheville!! She discovered that you really can go home again. Which she did. After being bitten by a Wild Goose, she gave away everything she owned to downsize and serve the Wild Goose Community. As an ordained Baptist Minister, the only thing she enjoys more than working with Wild Geese, is to officiate weddings. If you want to see her happy, give her a stage and a mic. If you want to see who she really is, sing and dance with her. If you want a big hug and kiss, hand her a donation! Vanna is honored and humbled to serve the Wild Goose community year round.
Art Director/Creative Guru
Anna thrives on curating creative and entrepreneurial possibility via Work of Place and Faithmarks. She is a United Methodist pastor, a creative ninja, entrepreneurial to the core, and sarcastic to a fault. Via Work of Place, she helps urban churches understand how their underutilized facilities can work alongside burgeoning entrepreneurs, often lacking in resource and financing, with the intent of sparking both neighborhood revitalization and an increase in ideators who change their communities. She is also the curator and founder of Faithmarks, a photographic art exhibit that showcases the spiritual stories behind tattoos. With storytelling at the heart of this traveling show, Anna invites our stories to provide the creative foundation for the new Kingdom that is needed, not to bind us to the mold of the one that birthed us.
Instagram and Twitter: @unholyhairetic
Director of Children’s Programming
Emily will be co-leading children’s activities at Wild Goose again this year. She’s an Episcopal priest at St. Alban’s in Washington, DC and a trainer in Godly Play – a hands-on, creative method of spiritual guidance used primarily but not always with kids. When she’s not in a circle sharing stories, she’s either reading voraciously, attempting French cooking with her husband, or brushing up on her Spanish. She’s most at home in the mountains and can’t wait to sing and work and pray and play again this year at the Goose.
Dr. Robyn Henderson-Espinoza
Curator, Justice Camp
Named at 1 of 10 Faith Leaders to watch in 2018 by the Center for American Progress, Dr. Robyn is an anti-oppression, anti-racist, non-binary Trans*gressive Latinx. Dr. Robyn takes seriously their call as an activist theologian and ethicist to bridge together theories and practices that result in communities responding to pressing social concerns. Dr. Robyn sees this work as a life-orienting vocation, deeply committed to translating theory to practice, and embedded in re-imagining our moral horizon to one which privileges a politics of radical difference.
To learn more, check out Dr. Robyn’s website: www.iRobyn.com
46 Surviving The Tyranny of The Now
47 A Queer Church Beyond Inclusion
128 Taking to the Social Streets
289 Loving Our Way to Freedom
290 Sacred and Profane
337 Bridging Radical Difference
Russ Jennings lives in New York City. In addition to his podcasting career he is an activist in justice work all over the city, mostly through The Micah Institute, a faith-based, multi-faith coalition of clergy and activists. For twenty years, Russ produced concerts and special events in the San Francisco Bay Area and he plied those skills at Wild Goose, where he was stage manager of the main stage for four years. He founded the GooseCast program in 2016 to showcase the excellent podcasts in our Goosey niche.
Rev. Narcizo Martinez – known to many as ‘Pastor Nar’ – is a Mexican-American currently residing in Ohio. Growing up in a bi-racial household, he learned to appreciate the unique gifts offered through his differing familial cultures. He understands the struggles and beauty of integrating multiple cultures in his life story.
This celebration of opposites applies not only to his heritage, but also to his spirituality. After coming to faith during the Jesus Movement, he traversed through many different expressions of community. He is a lover and follower of Jesus, a mystic, as well as a practicing Shaman. The thread that holds this eclectic mix together is his belief in the Great Spirit that has expressed itself at all times, in all cultures, and through all people.
Nar is a healer – physically, emotionally, and spiritually. He is also an experienced ritual and ceremony creator who utilizes the ancient praxis of the Medicine Wheel, Sacred Touch, Essential Oil Anointing / Massage.
Wayne Meisel is the Director of the Center for Faith and Service at McCormick Theological Seminary in Chicago, IL. The Center develops programs through partnerships with local congregations and national church offices for a generation defined by their commitment to service and justice. The Center also seeks to renew theological education through collective efforts to recruit, train and launch individuals into both traditional and new forms of ministry.
Prior to this position, he served as the Director of Faith and Service at the Cousins Foundation in Atlanta, GA. and was the founding President of the Bonner Foundation. As a Presidential appointee to the Commission on National and Community Service, Meisel served as one of the architects of the AmeriCorps programs and also as a charter board member of Teach for America.
He is an ordained minister in the Presbyterian Church and describes himself as an AmeriCorps Chaplain.
Having accumulated a lifetime of experience communicating clients’ messages in film, video, audio, photography, and multi-media, Rick set out on a quest a few years ago, searching for a way to use his creative talents to help “make the world a better place.” He soon encountered the Goose and noticed that it appeared to be on a nearly identical path. When he’s not working on Goose projects, you might find him shooting or editing video, riding his road bike around Chicago, cooking, reading, watching a movie, or just enjoying some mindless activity. As Creative Director of Wild Goose, Rick also manages programming, communications, and Wild Goose video.
Mike Morrell is the Communications Director for the Integral Theology think-tank Presence International, co-founder of The Buzz Seminar, and a founding organizer of the Wild Goose Festival. Mike curates contemplative and community experiences via Relational Yoga, the ManKind Project, (H) Opp and Authentic North Carolina, taking joy in holding space for the extraordinary transformation that can take place at the intersection of anticipation, imagination, and radical acceptance. Mike is also an avid writer, publishing consultant, author coach, futurist, and curator of the book-reviewing community at TheSpeakeasy.info. He lives with his wife and two daughters in North Carolina. You can read Mike’s ongoing exploration of Spirit, Culture, and Permaculture – and receive free exclusive updates – right here.
Taleese Morrill is the Youth Ministry Coordinator at First Congregational United Church of Christ in Asheville. She moved to the mountains with her husband seven years ago where they were inspired by the passion and activism of the faith community around them. She is passionate about doing away with the purity-culture shame that encompassed her youth and focusing on constant transparency and openness in her work with teenagers.
Jasmin Pittman Morrell
Jasmin Pittman Morrell is a writer and a collaborating editor for The Porch Magazine: a slow conversation about beautiful and difficult things. She is also the producer of the Movies and Meaning Experience, a conference, festival, and community gathering held in Asheville, North Carolina.
She’s been an editorial consultant for numerous authors and publishers, and Communications Director for Love Wins Ministries and the Wild Goose Festival.
Jasmin lives in Asheville, North Carolina, with her family and believes in beauty, radical hospitality, and deep laughter.
My path led me to meditation about a decade ago and then back to the Church shortly thereafter. Through many twists and turns, I was eventually led to this amazing, open, generous and loving community we call Wild Goose. I have been morphing in wonderful ways ever since, spreading the Gospel of Wild Goose everywhere I go! Among other things, I volunteer to help with the setup and breakdown, coordinate food venders and will lead an Ignation meditation Sunday morning. If you are reading this, I’d love to meet you and share a big, sweaty warm hug! Honk Honk!
Hi, I am an Artist and a Mom. A stay-at-home mom, the only option when you have five children. I have been married to John Prigmore for 30 years. We are now retired. I am planning on painting more again and widening my horizons. I love Wild Goose. This will be my fifth year. I was born in 1955, in Albuquerque, New Mexico. I grew up in a military family. I was a caregiver for my mother from 2005 to 2010, when she passed. I have made a lot of friends at the Goose and look forward to it every year.
Gary Rand loves making music and creating ritual experiences that open up people to mystery, justice, and a greater sense of community. He currently does that at LaSalle Street Church in Chicago and at McCormick Seminary, as well as through a new arts/liturgy collective, pluralguild.com. He’s also producing a new band, The Many, a collaboration working to create honest, reflective, and prophetic music for people to sing in worship. A regular on the LaSalle softball team, he even thinks bowling can be fun, especially when done ironically.
Communications & Social Media Consultant
Lenora is a writer, liturgy creator, and one of the founders of The Plural Guild, a collective crafting music, prayers, visual art & liturgy for people who want to worship in ways that more deeply reflect a peaceful, just and open expression of faith. She is the lyricist for the band, The Many, and as a certified coach she leads Self-Proclaimed Workshops helping people write personal manifestos. And because she rarely sleeps, she runs a creative & strategic ad agency called SmallGood, which is helping all kinds of businesses and nonprofits committed to making a positive impact in the world “grow their good.”
Media & Communications
Steve Ray produces the podcast Farming God on the spiritual adventure of America’s emerging generation. He travels to China, Mexico, and across middle America, asking bigger questions that broaden our understanding, fuel our imagination, and put our anxiety into perspective. He needs your help. Join the journey at farmingGod.org
Kirsti was happily living in England until she fell in love with a woman from Detroit. In 2003, she moved to Michigan where she is still adjusting to the culture shock while loving married life, and working as a counselor, musician, and minister. She has been involved with Wild Goose since the first festival and is delighted to be part of the music curation team as well as increasing the Catholic voice in the festival planning. A strong INFP, Kirsti rarely goes anywhere without a good book, a mug of tea, and her knitting.
Having had the greatest spiritual experience of her life at her first Wild Goose Festival in 2016, Michelle is incredibly thankful for the opportunity to give back as part of the WGF Staff/Support Team. Through her current work as a geriatric licensed massage therapist, instructional designer, author, and community volunteer, Michelle seeks to be the change she wishes to see in her own little corner of the world by helping others live all their days well. She is most grateful when she has the opportunity to work with and for other individuals and organizations that are choosing to do the same.
Curator, Worship Music Camp
Ordained United Church of Christ minister, itinerant singer/songwriter, worship and retreat leader and keynote conference speaker. Bryan is the Founder/Director of Crosswind Music Ministries, author of The 6 Marks of Progressive Christian Worship Music, and Lead Designer of The Convergence Music Project. He has released fourteen albums, four study guides that turn his songs into Christian Education curricula, and four songbooks of his original compositions.
Nancy St John
Co-Director, Children’s Programming
Nancy is very much looking forward to joining teammates in co-leading children’s activities at Wild Goose this year. She is a trained early childhood Montessori teacher at a Montessori school in Scituate, Massachusetts. Nancy is also a trainer for the Godly Play, a religious method that helps children explore their faith through story. Both these passions compliment the other, as she sits on the floor with children most Sundays at a nearby Episcopal church telling stories. Nancy lives along the rocky Massachusetts seashore, where she marvels at its beauty and loves walking along the beach any chance she gets in search of “treasure.”
Co-Director, Children’s Programming
“Sally is the most irreverent reverent person” a childhood friend proclaimed. Yep! Since her own children declared their innate theology as tiny sage ones, Sally has been attuned to the spiritual wisdom children offer in this wondrous world. She currently serves as the Missioner for Children & Families at Holy Communion (Episcopal) Church in University City, MO and is a D. Min. student at Eden Seminary. She has been in cahoots with circles of children and their families using Godly Play for twenty years and is thrilled to join Emily Griffin and Nancy St. John for Godly Play’s 3rd year at the Goose.
Administrative Support, LeadNOW!
Carolyn is a Lutheran PK (preacher’s kid) who has lived in California, Hawaii and raised 3 kids in Southern Oregon. Decades after her dad introduced her to the writings of Marcus Borg and John Shelby Spong, she discovered the Wild Goose WEST (Oregon) in 2012 and many new voices, She immediately called her parents and said they HAD to go to North Carolina in 2013! (They did and have been every year since).
This will be Carolyn’s 4th journey across country to be a part of this amazing community. She loves behind the scenes volunteering (number crunching / database work). At home, she just ended 8 years as the treasurer of her Presbyterian congregation and is now providing database help to a nearby UCC congregation and to Holmes House, a new residential hospice facility.
Liturgy and Worship
The Rev. Shaun Whitehead, D.Min, is a native of Chicago, Illinois. She pursued her theological education at McCormick Theological Seminary in Chicago. She is an ordained minister in the United Church of Christ. Shaun is the Associate University Chaplain, at St. Lawrence University in Canton, New York. As Associate Chaplain, Shaun ministers to students, faculty, staff and the broader community. Shaun is the pastor of the weekly Gospel Service, an inclusive and welcoming spiritual community. She also directs the Community Gospel Choir. Shaun founded “Got Spirit?” the annual Gospel Music Workshop & Concert held annually at the university. Through this workshop and other music initiatives, Shaun has brought many people together across racial/ethnic/cultural/religious difference. Before full time ministry, Shaun worked in Chicago’s radio industry for 14 years. As a preacher and singer, Shaun focuses her work on breaking down barriers and building relationships that are inclusive, reconciling and affirming.